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Helios is the Confidence Annotator implementation for Olympus. It integrates multiple sources of information to determine the confidence of a particular understanding generated by the Phoenix semantic parser, and presents a unified assessment of input understanding to the dialog management system. Helios was originally conceived and implemented by Paul Constantinides, as part of the CMU Communicator project.

The following features are computed from a history of parses:

feature name description
parse_str the parsed string
top_slots the top-level slots
slot_num the number of slots in the parse
new_slots_num the number of new slots in the parse
new_slots_num_bool the presence of new slots in the parse
rep_slots_num the number of repeated slots in the parse
rep_slots_num_bool the presence of repeated slots in the parse
total_num_parses the total number of parses (all hyps)
hyp_num_parses the number of parses for this hypothesis
num_parses_ratio the ratio of number of parses
uncov_num the number of words not covered by the parse
uncov_ratio the ratio of uncovered words
frag_num the number of fragments in the parse
frag_ratio the ratio of fragments
gap_num the number of gaps in the parse
frag_and_gap_num the total number of fragments and gaps
frag_mode the fragmentation mode
h_avg_gap_num the average number of gaps so far in the dialog
h_avg_uncov_num the average number of uncovered so far in the dialog


  • Bohus, D. & Rudnicky, A. 2002, November. Integrating multiple knowlege sources for utterance-level confidence annotation in the CMU Communicator spoken dialog system. (Tech. Rep. No. CMU-CS-02-190). Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University.
  • Zhang, Rong & Alexander Rudnicky (2001), "Word Level Confidence Annotation using Combinations of Features", Eurospeech
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