## "Solving the Symbol Grounding Problem: a Critical Review of Fifteen Years of Research"

http://web.comlab.ox.ac.uk/oucl/research/areas/ieg/research_reports/ieg_rr210605.pdf#search=%22taddeo%20symbol%20grounding%20problem%2

**Taddeo, Mariarosaria & Floridi, Luciano** (2005) *Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence, 17.4* pp. 419 - 445

This article reviews eight proposed strategies for solving the Symbol Grounding Problem
(SGP), which was given its classic formulation in Harnad (1990). After a concise
introduction, we provide an analysis of the requirement that must be satisfied by any
hypothesis seeking to solve the SGP, the zero semantical commitment condition. We then use
it to assess the eight strategies, which are organised into three main approaches:
representationalism, semi-representationalism and non-representationalism. The conclusion is
that all the strategies are semantically committed and hence that none of them provides a valid
solution to the SGP, which remains an open problem.

### Notes